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Arabian Jasmine



Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine or Sambac jasmine)[1][3] is a species of jasmine native to tropical Asia, from the Indian subcontinent to Southeast Asia.[4][5] It is cultivated in many places, especially West Asia, South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is naturalised in many scattered locales: Mauritius, Madagascar, the Maldives, Christmas Island, Chiapas, Central America, southern Florida, the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the Lesser Antilles.[6][7][8]




arabian jasmine



Jasminum sambac is a small shrub or vine growing up to 0.5 to 3 m (1.6 to 9.8 ft) in height. It is widely cultivated for its attractive and sweetly fragrant flowers. The flowers may be used as a fragrant ingredient in perfumes and jasmine tea. It is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as sampaguita,[9] as well as being one of the three national flowers of Indonesia, where it is known as melati putih.


The leaves are ovate, 4 to 12.5 cm (1.6 to 4.9 in) long and 2 to 7.5 cm (0.79 to 2.95 in) wide. The phyllotaxy is opposite or in whorls of three, simple (not pinnate, like most other jasmines).[13] They are smooth (glabrous) except for a few hairs at the venation on the base of the leaf.[11]


The English common name of "Arabian jasmine", Jasminum sambac is due to it being widely cultivated in Southwest of Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Oman. Early Chinese records of the plant points to the origin of Jasminum sambac as eastern South Asia and Southeast Asia. Jasminum sambac (and nine other species of the genus) were spread into Arabia and Persia by man, where they were cultivated in gardens. From there, they were introduced to Europe where they were grown as ornamentals and were known under the common name "sambac" in the 18th century.[16][17]


The Medieval Arabic term "zanbaq" denoted jasmine flower-oil from the flowers of any species of jasmine. This word entered late medieval Latin as "sambacus" and "zambacca" with the same meaning as the Arabic, and then in post-medieval Latin plant taxonomy the word was adopted as a label for the J. sambac species.[18] The J. sambac species is a good source for jasmine flower-oil in terms of the quality of the fragrance and it continues to be cultivated for this purpose for the perfume industry today. The Jasminum officinale species is also cultivated for the same purpose, and probably to a greater extent.


In 1753, Carl Linnaeus first described the plant as Nyctanthes sambac in the first edition of his famous book Systema Naturae. In 1789, William Aiton reclassified the plant to the genus Jasminum. He also coined the common English name of "Arabian jasmine".[19]


Its aroma is caused by a variety of compounds including benzyl alcohol, tetradecamethylcycloheptasiloxane, methyl benzoate, linalool, benzyl acetate, (-)-(R)-jasmine lactone, (E,E)-α-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, N-acetylmethylanthranilate, dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane, (E)-methyl jasmonate, benzyl benzoate and isophytol.[citation needed]


It has long been considered a sacred flower in Indonesian tradition, as it symbolizes purity, sacredness, graceful simplicity and sincerity. It also represents the beauty of modesty; a small and simple white flower that can produce such sweet fragrance. It is also the most important flower in wedding ceremonies for ethnic Indonesians, especially in the island of Java.[36] Jasmine flower buds that have not fully opened are usually picked to create strings of jasmine garlands (Javanese: roncen melati). On wedding days, a traditional Javanese or Sundanese bride's hair is adorned with strings of jasmine garlands arranged as a hairnet to cover the konde (hair bun). The intricately intertwined strings of jasmine garlands are left to hang loose from the bride's head. The groom's kris is also adorned with five jasmine garlands called roncen usus-usus (intestine garlands) to refer its intestine-like form and also linked to the legend of Arya Penangsang. In Makassar and Bugis brides, the hair is also adorned with buds of jasmine that resemble pearls. Jasmine is also used as floral offerings for hyangs, spirits and deities especially among Balinese Hindu, and also often present during funerals. In South Sumatran traditional costume, the bungo melati pattern in Palembang songket fabrics depicts the jasmine to represent beauty and femininity.


The jasmine has wide spectrums in Indonesian traditions; it is the flower of life, beauty and festive wedding, yet it is also often associated with spirit and death. In Indonesian patriotic songs and poems, the fallen melati is often hailed as the representation of fallen heroes that sacrificed their lives and died for the country, a very similar concept to fallen sakura that represents fallen heroes in Japanese tradition. The Ismail Marzuki's patriotic song "Melati di Tapal Batas" (jasmine on the border) (1947) and Guruh Sukarnoputra's "Melati Suci"[37] (sacred jasmine) (1974) clearly refer jasmine as the representation of fallen heroes, the eternally fragrance flower that adorned Ibu Pertiwi (Indonesian national personification). Iwan Abdurachman's "Melati Dari Jayagiri" (jasmine from Jayagiri mountain) refers to jasmine as the representation of the pure unspoiled beauty of a girl and also a long-lost love.


In Indonesia, jasmine essential oil is also extracted from jasmine flowers and buds by using the steam distillation process. Jasmine essential oil is one of the most expensive commodities in the aromatherapy and perfume industry.[citation needed]


In China, the flower (Chinese: 茉莉花; pinyin: Mòlì huā) is processed and used as the main flavoring ingredient in jasmine tea (茉莉花茶).[16] It is also the subject of a popular folk song Mo Li Hua.


Jasmine is a sacred flower in Hinduism, it is used in mediation, decoration, fragrance, worship and it is sacred to all forms of Goddess Devi. It is used as sacred offerings during Hindu religious ceremonies:. Here is a Hindu prayer:"...Goddess Saraswathi, who is fair as a jasmine flower, the moon or a snow flake, who is dressed in white and whose hands are adorned by Veena, who is seated in a white lotus, to whom Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara pray, please protect us..."[39]


Because of its fast growth and vining nature, the Arabian jasmine is considered invasive tropical areas outside of its native regions in Asia. According to the Invasive Species Compendium, Arabian jasmine is invasive in Cuba, Hawaii, and Florida. Be sure to do research before planting Arabian jasmine in your area.


Used to flavor jasmine tea in China, award-winner Jasminum sambac (Arabian Jasmine) is a twining or scrambling evergreen shrub with glossy dark green leaves and exceptionally fragrant waxy pure-white flowers, 1 in. across (2.5 cm). The blooms fade to pink as they mature. Born in clusters of 3-12 blossoms, they flower throughout the summer - and almost continuously in warm climates. Arabian Jasmine may be grown as a twining shrubby vine if support is provided, or as a sprawling shrub without any support. In Hawaii, the blossoms are a favorite for leis.


When winter arrives, water less frequently. Check the soil moisture first. Also, keep indoor jasmine plants out of the direct vent flow from your heater. While it loves warmth, a heater vent can cause the soil to dry out fast.


Fertilize your outdoor jasmine plant four times during the year. Once will be right after its late-winter pruning. Three more feedings should be evenly spaced during the spring, summer, and fall months. A 10-30-10 fertilizer is recommended for jasmine flower production. Use a slow-release granular form and broadcast it evenly under the plant.


A: In its hardiness range of zones 9 to 11, yes. However, it will need protection in cooler zones, and may not survive a very cold winter. In areas where it gets very cold, plant your jasmine in a planter and bring it indoors over winter.


If you have ever been presented with a rope-type Hawaiian lei, strung with highly fragrant tiny white flowers you understand the enticing beauty of the Arabian jasmine (Jasminum sambac), or pikake, in Hawaii. Arabian jasmine is a flowering shrub, native to India. It grows to 6 feet in height with a 2- to 3-foot spread. Flowers are white, star-shaped and 1/2 to 3/4 inch wide. Arabian jasmine does best in warm weather in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 through 11. Whether you are growing Arabian jasmine outdoors or indoors, the plant benefits from regular application of fertilizer.


Add the fertilizer granules to the broadcast spreader. Some gardeners use gloved hands to sprinkle the fertilizer on the soil. This isn't a good practice as it provides uneven coverage and some areas may receive too much fertilizer, which can burn the jasmine's roots.


Arabian jasmine is very popular for its exotic, musky, sensual, and zesty aroma. But apart from that, the benefits of Arabian jasmine are also numerous. This mildly fragrant flower works as a natural aphrodisiac. In India, brides are adorned with oodles of this jasmine in their wedding celebrations.


This jasmine has a special mention in Ayurvedic texts. It has been valued as an effective remedy for various health ailments like epilepsyi XA central nervous system disorder characterized by seizures, unconsciousness, or odd behavior due to fluctuations in the brain activity. , headaches, nausea, impotence, itches, wounds, ulcers, and eye disorders.


Arabian jasmine will be a worthy add-on to your favorite jasmine oil or jasmine tea range. We have described the many health benefits of the Arabian jasmine in this article. Incorporating it into your regular lifestyle can help improve your life in many ways.


What makes Arabian jasmine such a beneficial ingredient for health issues? Well, many studies have shown that this miraculous flower is full of active compounds like flavonoids and coumarins that are known to promote vascular health, cardiac glycosides and phenolics that detoxifies our body. 041b061a72


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