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[Extra Quality] TATW 3.2


All sailing ships rely on the wind for motive power. The only practical way to make a better speed through the water at a particular wind velocity is to put on more sail. Each mast is designed to take a main sail and a topsail, but it is possible with top gallants to add an extra sail above the topsail. Naturally, this requires more yards, ropes and skilled sailors to set the sails. Adding a top gallant is also something of a strain on the fabric of the ship: the extra strain on a mast can, in high winds, rip it right out of a hull. This catastrophic damage to the whole ship can also cause casualties among the crew.




[Extra quality] TATW 3.2



Simply: better soil means better harvests, and by grouping fields into fours, all crops are grown every year, just in different places. Farmers have long practiced crop rotation, leaving fields to lie fallow one year in every four to recover their fertility. This system works, but it means that a quarter of farmland is doing nothing every year. This reduces profits and food supply. Four-field rotation adds an extra, useful crop to the series that actually improves the soil: clover or turnips are typical plantings.


It is possible for a skilled man to make parts for any device that are all of the same size and quality, but it is not easy for him to do this day in, day out. By using a series of machines that are set to carry an individual task each, it is possible to replicate the skills of the craftsman with unskilled labour. A man only needs to know how to place a work item in a machine and pull a lever. The machine itself will always drill the proper hole, cut a shape or turn an item. The main restriction on the number of any device made disappears, as skilled labour is only needed to set up the machines. As a secondary benefit it is also possible to standardise even the most basic of items, such nuts and bolts.


Historically, English ironmaster Henry Cort (1740-1800) developed the process, partly in response to the poor quality of iron he dealt with in his job working for the Royal Naval Dockyards. Unfortunately, he was not much of a businessman and he did not gain great wealth from his work; he died a ruined man.


The quality control of data entry in computerized questionnaires is an important step in the validation of new instruments. The study assessed the consistency of recorded weight and height on the Food Intake and Physical Activity of School Children (Web-CAAFE) between repeated measures and against directly measured data. Students from the 2nd to the 5th grade (n = 390) had their weight and height directly measured and then filled out the Web-CAAFE. A subsample (n = 92) filled out the Web-CAAFE twice, three hours apart. The analysis included hierarchical linear regression, mixed linear regression model, to evaluate the bias, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), to assess consistency. Univariate linear regression assessed the effect of gender, reading/writing performance, and computer/internet use and possession on residuals of fixed and random effects. The Web-CAAFE showed high values of ICC between repeated measures (body weight = 0.996, height = 0.937, body mass index - BMI = 0.972), and regarding the checked measures (body weight = 0.962, height = 0.882, BMI = 0.828). The difference between means of body weight, height, and BMI directly measured and recorded was 208 g, -2 mm, and 0.238 kg/m, respectively, indicating slight BMI underestimation due to underestimation of weight and overestimation of height. This trend was related to body weight and age. Height and weight data entered in the Web-CAAFE by children were highly correlated with direct measurements and with the repeated entry. The bias found was similar to validation studies of self-reported weight and height in comparison to direct measurements.


Abstract: Performing safe cardiac surgery in neonates or infants whose parents are Jehovah's Witnesses is only possible in a coordinated team approach. An unconditional prerequisite is a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit with a very low priming volume to minimize hemodilution. In the past decade, we have developed a functional blood-sparing approach at our institution. The extracorporeal circuit was miniaturized. This had to be recently adapted, faced with a challenge associated with the switch to high-volume crystalloid cardioplegia. A filtration circuit was added. Here, we report an open heart surgery on three consecutive children of Jehovah's Witness parents with a body weight of 2.7, 4.5, and 4.8 kg, respectively. Procedures consisted of one arterial switch operation and two repairs of complete atrioventricular septal defects. Our static priming volume of less than 90 mL resulted in a nadir hematocrit during CPB of 27.7% (Hb 8.9 g/dL) in a patient which happened to have the lowest body weight of 2.7 kg. The two other patients had their lowest hematocrit at 31.4% (Hb 10.2 g/dL). The three children could be treated without any kind of transfusion of blood which had left the circulation or its extensions, in accordance with the parents' wishes, and enjoy favorable outcomes without transfusion of blood products during their entire hospital stay. PMID:28638157


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gastrostomy tube feeding on body protein and bone mineralization in malnourished children with cerebral palsy (CP). Children aged between 4 and 18 years with spastic quadriplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System level V) were recruited from the Children's Hospital at Westmead to participate in this prospective cohort study. The children had measurements of anthropometry (weight, height, and skinfold), bone mineral content (BMC) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and total body protein (TBP) by neutron activation analysis before and after gastrostomy tube feeding. Comparison data were collected prospectively from age-matched healthy children and extracted from databases for this study. A total of 21 children (nine females, 12 males) participated in the study (median age 8 y 5 mo; interquartile range [IQR] 6 y 9 mo-11 y 10 mo). The median length of time of gastrostomy feeding was 19.4 months (IQR 7.7-29.9 mo). Significant (p


Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at 10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean SD, 148.9 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at 10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P


Abstract The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM) during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg) and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg). The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong). The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002) between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007), 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016) and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032). The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to


The disabled population varies significantly in regard to physical fitness, what is conditioned by the damage to the locomotor system. Recently there has been an increased emphasis on the role of competitive sport in enhancing health and the quality of life of individuals with disability. One of the sport disciplines of Paralympics is the flat bench press. The bench press is one of the most popular resistance exercises used for the upper body in healthy individuals. It is used not only by powerlifters, but also by athletes in most strength-speed oriented sport disciplines. The objective of the study was to compare neuromuscular control for various external loads (from 60 to 100% 1RM) during the flat bench press performed by an elite able-bodied athlete and an athlete with lower limb disability. The research project is a case study of two elite bench press athletes with similar sport results: an able-bodied athlete (M.W., age 34 years, body mass 103 kg, body height 1.72 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 200 kg) and a disabled athlete (M.T., age 31 years, body mass 92 kg, body height 1.70 m, 1RM in the flat bench press 190 kg). The activity was recorded for four muscles: pectoralis major (PM), anterior deltoid (AD), as well as for the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii (TBlat and TBlong). The T-test revealed statistically significant differences between peak activity of all the considered muscles (AD with p = 0.001; PM with p = 0.001; TBlat with p = 0.0021 and TBlong with p = 0.002) between the 2 athletes. The analysis of peak activity differences of M.W and M.T. in relation to the load revealed statistically significant differences for load changes between: 60 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.007), 70 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.016) and 80 to 100% 1RM (p = 0.032). The flat bench press performed without legs resting firmly on the ground leads to the increased engagement of upper body muscles and to their greater activation. Isolated initial positions can be used to generate 350c69d7ab


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